Buy EPO Online - Erythropoietin for Sale
Buy EPO (Erythropoietin)
Erythropoietin Abbreviated as EPO is a cytokine glycoprotein. It is also known as hemopoietin secreted by the liver and kidneys in response to hypoxia (deficiency in oxygen cellular access). Erythropoietin (EPO) assists erythropoiesis, a process of production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. In turn, red blood cells enhance the oxygen-carrying capacity of human blood. 10mU/mL is the amount of erythropoietin secreted by kidneys to compensate for RBC turnover. An elevated level of this hormone up to 10,000 mU/mL is an alarming situation. It may result in chronic anemia and hypoxia. EPO production in kidney fibroblasts dominates during adulthood. During perinatal and fetal period liver EPO production dominates.
Buy EPO it has Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Therapy as an Advanced Treatment
Epoetin alpha (Binokrit and Eprex) and epoetin beta (Epostim, Erythropoietin Binnopharm and Mircera) are the classic examples of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). This exogenous erythropoietin is produced by an advanced recombinant DNA technology and widely used in the treatment of chronic renal anemia, chemotherapy, perioperative surgical blood loss, antiviral drug treatment, and myelodysplastic syndrome. ESA therapy gives clinically significant results.
|Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) is a familiar performance-boosting agent. It is widely used by athletes to enhance their endurance. The mode of action of recombinant EPO is to increase the hemoglobin level in human blood thus enhancing its oxygen-carrying capacity. This oxygen serves as a fuel for an athlete’s muscle activity enhancement.|
History of EPO (Erythropoietin)
In 1905 Paul Carnot narrated that a hormone can regulate red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Paul Carnot and his co-workers observed the factors responsible for bloodletting. They presented a hypothesis of an increase in red blood cells by a homeotropic factor hemopoietin. The substance was named as erythropoietin by Eva Jalavisto and Eeva Bonsdorff. In 1977 it was purified as erythropoietin hormone. In 1983, Amgen Inc. introduced Epotein Alfa as the first rhEPO commercial product. It was isolated by introducing the human erythropoietin gene into Hamster ovarian cells. Afterward, variant alpha and beta formulations are introduced. In 1987 rhEPO proved itself as an effective remedy of anemia. In 1989 Us Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Epogen Hormone. Since 1990, s alpha-EPO and beta-EPO have been frequently administered. These can be used subcutaneously as well as intravenously.
In 2008 Roche appeared on canvas with an introductory third generation of erythropoietin. Mircera (epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol) is a dominant product with its remarkable features. Methoxy polyethylene glycol is a long chain structural part of the drug which ensures the longer half-life. Mircera has 20 times longer half-life than epoetin (a part of the drug) thus relaxes its user by giving long dose breaks.
Erythropoietin has a half-life of 5 hours in human blood. It is a glycosylated growth hormone which triggers the differentiation of erythroid ancestors in the bone marrow. The half-life may vary in recombinant or endogenous versions.
Epoetin Mode of Action:
EPO (Erythropoietin) is a hormone required for erythropoiesis, a process that regulates red blood cell production in the human body. When your body deprives enough supply of oxygen at the tissue and cellular level, this hypoxic condition is treated with erythropoietin secretion. The kidney will release erythropoietin by targeting proerythroblasts, CFU-E, and basophilic erythroblast subsets. The basic function of erythropoietin is to approach RBC progenitors in the human bone marrow and to protect them from apoptosis (the process of cell death).
Erythropoietin binds to the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and executes its effects. EPO activates a JAK2 signaling flow by binding the erythropoietin receptor at the surface of red blood cells. There are different initiated routes like PIK3, STAT5, and Ras MAPK. The result is the survival, growth, and differentiation among erythroid cells. Erythroid progenitors are the localized sites as erythropoietin receptor with high-level expression. There is an investigative study that suggests heart, kidney, nervous tissues and muscles as nonspecific EPO receptors. In human beings, RBCs do not act as a localized receptor of erythropoietin and nonresponding to EPO. Neocytolysis is the process which shows an indirect effect of erythropoietin on red blood cells by elevating plasma EPO level.
Erythropoietin as Doping Agent
The use of erythropoietin in sports dates back circa 1977 when for the first-time pure erythropoietin was purified from human urine. In literature terms used for recombinant erythropoietin are r-HuEPO, rHuEPO, rEPO, and r-HuEPO. An overview of the use of this hormone in sports is
(1985-1987)-EPO gene cloning was a success with the commercial launch of rEPO
(1980-1990)-A lot of cyclist’s deaths because of EPO administration.
1988- EPO was listed as a doping agent by the International Ski Federation.
1989- The commercial use of EPO as a drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
1990- International Olympic Committee banned the use of EPO.
1997- International Ski Federation and The International Cycling Union introduced a method of blood sampling and their doping test to ensure the health standards of sportsmen.
1998- France Cycling competition was the main highlighted event for the use of erythropoietin as a stamina boosting agent.
1999- In Sydney, a meeting on the blood EPO detection in Olympics was called.
Erythropoietin is a member of S2 group hormones, the hormones which are banned worldwide for therapy. The only advantage of its application in sports and clinically is its functionality. It increases human blood oxygen-carrying capacity by giving a boost to RBC number. As a doping agent, its goal is to supply energy to an athlete’s muscles.
Erythropoietin practically appeared on the canvas when it was artificially prepared from hamster ovarian cells. Recombinant EPO Recormon is chemically identical to human EPO with some structural differences. This renders a minute difference in the physicochemical properties of rEPO. In sports, doping is extensively used for cycling with endurance manifestation. In any kind of sports where extensive muscle energy is required e.g. cycling, swimming, skating, running and skinning, etc. erythropoietin therapy is practiced. The continuous application of buy EPO with assisted physical work gives stamina to its user.
EPO Doping Test
The current techniques used for doping tests are direct and indirect methods. The application of indirect arsenal for doping control is preferable because it requires a small amount of urine or blood sample. Administration of erythropoietin and afterward the determination of its (fibrinogen and fibrin) breakdown products in the urine sample is an effective tool for doping control. But recently we cannot rely on a single test to finally estimate the administration of exogenous erythropoietin.
Medical Applications of Erythropoietin
Erythropoietin is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic kidney anemia. The widely used EPO drugs for treatment are Aranesp (darbepoetin alpha) and Epogen/Procrit (epoetin alpha). State of the art Recombinant DNA technology is practiced producing Recombinant Erythropoietin drugs. Other fields of clinical application are Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chemotherapy-induced anemia, and other chronic factors.
Side Effects of Erythropoietin
Frequent use of Erythropoietin may offer the following risk factors subject to increased blood hemoglobin levels than 11g/dl.
Myocardial infection/Heart attack
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MIRCERA (Epoetin beta)
EPORATIO (Epoetin THETA)
Aranesp (Darbepoetin alpha)
Binokrit (Epoetin alpha)
Epostim (Epoetin beta, EPO, Erythropoietin)